Many typhoons and hurricanes are getting worst or they are increasing in its intensity. Many animals are dying because of extreme heat. It is very important that we should decrease the uses of emissions in our atmosphere before it becomes too late for us. Many people are affected because of climate change. There are some agencies that are now implementing some alternative ways to prevent the increase of carbon in our atmosphere. In my field as an architecture student there some sectors that implementing a sustainable design in which it helps to decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.
One of it is the green architecture, as we all know green architecture or sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and placement space. Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological conservation in the design of the built environment. The idea of sustainability, or ecological design, is to ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations. This means also of using a green materials or indigenous materials.
Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle: room sitting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns to economy, utility , durability, and comfort.
Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. 3] Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Although some green building programs don’t address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes, others do. Green construction principles can easily be applied to retrofit work as well as new construction. A 2009 report by the U. S. General Services Administration found 12 sustainable designed buildings cost less to operate and have excellent energy performance.
In addition, occupants were more satisfied with the overall building than those in typical commercial buildings. In our class in environmental science we have watched a documentary about the Architecture 2030 in which it tackles about the using of carbon dioxide, in which it encourages all next generation of architecture student to design a building without sing carbon emission. To a review of the documentary here is the brief background of it. In 2002, Architect Edward Mazurka established the non-profit organization Architecture 2030.
Its mission was to rapidly transform both US and global building industries from being major contributors of greenhouse gas emissions, to being key parts of the response to global warming. Because the building sector is responsible for almost half of greenhouse gas emissions, Mazurka decided to put his architecture career on hold and dedicate himself full time convincing the building sector to hang in ways. The goal of the organization is to dramatically reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the building sector by changing the way buildings and development are planned, designed and constructed.
The organization issued a challenge to the global architecture and building community that ask them to adopt the targets. It is Edward Mazurka ‘s belief that by using innovative, sustainable design strategies, generating on site renewable energy , or purchasing renewable energy credits , these targets can be met. In fact he believes that they must be mat avert catastrophic change. Edward Mazurka had compare the 2030 challenge to an insurance policy because as we all know insurance policy is contract between the insurer and the insured known as policy holder, which determines the claims which the insure is legally required to pay.
In exchange for an initial payment, known as the premium , the insurer promises to pay for the loss caused by perils covered under the policy language, so Just like the insurance policy the 2030 challenge is somehow the insurer, it is also been SAA d that in this situation we are now on don’t nave any insurance policy at all wherein carbon emission insurance policy means taking out our carbon missions policy that must go beyond poles and politics and influences of our sudsiest.
To help in the 2030 challenge even if I am not an architect I must say that I could help in this challenge through encouraging other people to avoid using of fossil fuel and greenhouse emission or in a simply way I would do some alternative ways without using any carbon emitting energy in which I could lessen and wouldn’t harm the environment maybe in that way I could help to succeed in the specific 2030 challenge.
In education the specific actions that could be done to support in 2030 challenge s that is to change the curriculum given to the students especially the architecture students to give them knowledge about the alternative ways of designing an effective structure that wouldn’t consume any carbon of greenhouse emission. It is very important to educate the students so that in the mere future they will not experiencing a climate change and it would even save the lives of the next generation.
In building codes the specific action that could be done in here is that they should implement some rule that would prohibited the use of fossil fuel or green house energy to support the challenge . ND they should also revise some of the rule that has been implemented. In investment maybe people should invest to 2030 challenge and learn how to not use a carbon emitting object. They should invest in some alternative ways that wouldn’t harm our ecosystem.
May be in that way they could somehow support in the 2030 In this documentary Architecture 2030 was an eye opening to us especially to us an architecture student, because in the future we somehow build some projects through this documentary we be able to somehow avoid using of greenhouse gases that would affect our ecosystem and be able use effectively the green architecture or sustainable design in which it will totally help to avoid climate change and be able to succeed 2030 challenge.
HARVESTING THE WIND Industrial revolution was a transition to a new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transitional manufacturing included going from hand production methods to machines, new manufacturing chemical and iron production processes improved efficiency of water power, increasing use of steam power and the development of machines tools. It also marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way.
The economic effect of Industrial revolution on rural areas especially from other places is that population increases, more industrial building are being bulb in which it increases the opportunity for employment in the new mill and factories but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labor dominated by a pace set by machines. Industrial revolution led to population increase but the chances of surviving childhood did not improve throughout the Industrial Revolution.
There was still limited opportunity for education and children ere expected to work. The benefits of building a business especially a wind farm is that it revivalists rural economies in which wind energy can diversity the economies to rural communities adding to the tax base and providing new types of incomes. It also lessen the subsidies where all energy system are subsidized and wind is no exception however wind receives considerably less that other forms of energy.
It is a free fuel , unlike other forms of electrical generation where fuel is shipped to a process plant, wind energy generates electricity at sources of fuel which is free. Wind s a native fuel that does not need to be mined or transported, taking two expensive costs out of long-term energy expenses. Another thing is that it has a price stability , the price of electricity from fossil fuels and nuclear power can fluctuate greatly due to highly variable mining and transportation costs. Wind can help buffer these costs because the price of fuel is fixed and free. Alluding wind farm also creates a job, wind energy projects create new short and long term Jobs. Related employment ranges from meteorologists and surveyors to structural engineers, assembly workers, lawyers, bankers, and technicians. Wind energy creates 30% more Jobs than a coal plant and 66% more than a nuclear power plant per unit of energy generated. In this business it conserves and keep water clean, turbines produce no particulate emissions that contribute to mercury contamination in our lakes and streams. Wind energy also conserves water resources.
For example, producing the same amount of electricity can take about 600 times more water with nuclear power than wind, and about 500 times more water with coal than wind. A significant contribution to the worldwide energy mix can be made by small clusters of turbines or even single reburies, operated by local landowners and small businesses. Developing local sources of electricity means we import less fuel from other states, regions, and nations. It also means our energy dollars are plowed back into the local economy.
And it also preserve the land , wind farms are spaced over a large geographic area, but their actual ” footprint” covers only a small portion of the land resulting in a minimum impact on crop production or livestock grazing. It also neglects greenhouse gases, most of our power sources produce a large quantities of greenhouse gases. Wind power produces none other than in the manufacture, installation and maintenance of turbines. On average those greenhouse gases are offset by the clean power the turbines produce within 9 months of operation.
Total wind capacity in the United States reached 60,007 MM by the end of 2012, with commercial-scale wind turbines operating in 38 states. Wind power accounted for 35% of the country’s new power-production capacity from 2007 to 2011, second only to natural gas. According to the American Wind Energy Association (AWE), at the end of 2012 Texas led the country as the state with the most installed wind power with 12,212 MM. California rose to second place in 2012, overcoming Iowa. They had 5,549 and 5,137 MM, respectively.
Iowa remains the leading state in wind generation as a portion of total power, with about 25% of its electricity coming from the wind. Minnesota is among the top 10 in production and among the top 5 as a portion of total electricity. By the end of 2012 Minnesota was getting about 17% of its electricity from the wind. Although this is significant growth for wind energy, it still only accounts for a small percentage of the U. S. Electricity supply. The U. S. Department of Energy recently released a report that laid out a plan to reach 20% wind energy rower by 2030 to fuel the U.
S. Electricity grid. This would provide a major increase in jobs, benefits to rural landowners, and lead the country to increased energy independence. Factors pushing for growth in U. S. Wind energy include the high cost of fossil fuels and concern over national energy security. As a result, policy makers are actively considering a wide range of legislation that would support and enhance wind energy growth. Progressive public policy has usually been a key ingredient both for encouraging wind energy expansion and helping to determine what forms that growth will take.
Future growth will likely come from commercial-scale wind farms, which are typically vast arrays of turbines owned and operated by large corporations. Yet experience in Minnesota has shown that, with an encouraging policy environment, small clusters of turbines or even single turbines can make significant contributions, operated by local landowners, small businesses, and community wind projects. The next documentary we have watched is entitled “HARVESTING THE WIND”, it talks about using of wind as a renewable energy resources.
In Denmark 20% of its electricity comes from the wind. To give an idea about the documentary here is it brief background: in southwest corner of Minnesota – the Buffalo Ridge region – there is a productive and progressive wind industry that is not only providing clean energy, but also economic opportunity and prosperity to the local community. Communities are often resistant to the construction of wind farms because of the aesthetic effects on the natural environment.
In Minnesota this is not been a case because the community itself is building and benefiting from the wind farms. In many cases, an outsider will enter a community with his/her own annotators, build wind farm and leave, taking most financial benefits out of the community. According to Dan July, president of Woodstock wind farm, the community wind industry has grown so much in Minnesota in the last 10 years that Solon has opened its first U. S manufacturing facility in Pipestone, Minnesota in the heart of Buffalo Ridge.
A community wind farm is somehow a locally- owned wind project owned by farmer it is a small projects. This community wind farm is different from other wind farm it is because the wind mill is initially built within the land area of a farmer, its reburies produce no particulate emissions that contribute to mercury contamination in lakes and streams. This developing local sources of electricity means that it import less fuel from other states, regions and nations. It is a fastest growing energy resources in the world.
The difference between the two is that in some local places between 5-10 times the value because in developing the local or communication farm they uses local contract unlike other wind farm they embroiled materials use in building a wind farm. Dan July talks about community wind as a trisects, the three reasons why he hints this is true it because first (a) you get clean sustainable energy,(B) you get economic development and economic viability for the rural communities where the project are in and (c) you get long term low cost energy.
I agree to what he says because as we see in the video many local community especially the farmers are now using the wind farm that has been introduce to them. It also lessens the use of greenhouse gases and even fossil fuel. And it has a low cost of energy as we all know in the documentary it has been said that they are implementing the use of wind energy. I think they nave benefited the community to pipestone through the employment and economic opportunity.
It creates an technological advancements and supportive policy measures have the ability to dramatically increase the future of wind energy development in our nation and our world. If we used all the wind energy available to us, according to my research Turbines are sprouting up around the globe in record numbers. By the end of 2010, there were over 197,000 MM of wind installed around the world, which is more than three- times the 59,000 MM installed in 2005. The pace of growth is uneven, because of logic changes and uncertainties.
At the end of 2012 China had the most installed capacity, over 75,000 MM, with the US second at 60,000 MM, and Germany third with over 31,000 MM. In terms of the amount of electricity produced by wind, the US was the leader in 2012, with over 120 Two, China second at over 88 Two, and Germany third with about 49 Two. In 2012, because of Congress’s inability to make decisions, thereby threatening the continuation of the tax policy that incentives wind, developers in the US scrambled to get wind projects up and running by the end of the year.
As a result installations in the US were a record 13,000 MM. Forecasters do not foresee this level of activity being approached again for many years. China’s recent boom can be attributed to the passage of a Renewable Energy Standard in 2007 and the introduction in 2009 of requirements for grid owners to buy electricity from renewable, as well as a 20-year feed-in-tariff for wind projects. While nearly half of the world’s new installed capacity in 2010 came from China, other countries are also growing their wind resources. Source: Global Energy Council’s Global Wind Report 2010). Denmark, Germany, and Spain continue to be a leaders in wind power, with India, France, Italy and the I-J rising in the market. The recent boom in renewable energy investment, including wind energy generation, is being aided through progressive policies and widespread public support. Legislation such as the Auk’s Renewable Obligation, the 29 US states and 2 territories with Renewable Portfolio Standards, and the Ex.’s target for 20% renewable energy by 2020 is aiding the development of wind energy across the globe.
And if we use it in our country maybe the percentage of energy that we could used in power is the same as the there country had used. To end up this reaction, I have discovered that using a community wind farm opens many opportunity to local people and in the country. It also helps to solve the problem in greenhouse gases that we are using through the use of wind energy it lessens the uses of gases that will affect the ecosystems. So that in the mere future people will live in harmony. Architecture 2030 is a U.
S. Based, non-traditional and flexible environmental advocacy group focused on protecting the global environment by using innovation and common sense to develop, and quickly implement, bold solutions to global arming. The 2030 Challenge The ‘Building Sector’ is the major source of demand for energy and materials that produce by-product greenhouse gases (GOGH). Stabilizing and reversing emissions in this sector is key to keeping future global warming under one degree Celsius (co) above today’s level.
To accomplish this, and avoid dangerous climate change, Architecture 2030 issued ‘The 2030 Challenge’ in 2007, asking the global architecture and building community to adopt the following targets: All new buildings, developments and major renovations be designed to meet a fossil fuel, greenhouse as (GOGH) emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type.
At a minimum, an amount of existing building area equal to that of new construction be renovated annually to meet a fossil fuel, greenhouse gas (GOGH) emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type. The fossil fuel reduction standard for all new buildings be increased to: 60% in 2010 in 2015 2020 in 2025 Carbon-neutral by 2030 (zero fossil-fuel, GOGH emitting energy to operate).
This may e accomplished through innovative design strategies, application of renewable technologies and/or the purchase (maximum 20%) of renewable energy. The more pressing goals are addressed in The 2010 Imperative. In February 2011 the ‘2030 Challenge for Products’ was issued, aiming to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions created by the production of building products.
There are economies of scale in wind development, and in general, as might be expected, smaller wind projects have higher costs. There are, however, numerous programs to help improve the economics of small projects. Small-scale wind incentives for installations of 2 MM or less and programs offering special financial assistance for these small-scale wind installations are summarized on the tables provided in Appendix B.
The Minnesota Renewable Energy Production Incentive is key to the financial viability these projects, along with both property and sales tax exemptions. Wind installations of 40 k or less, home or farm systems, qualify for net metering. Net metering allows owners of these very small wind machines to consume electricity from the grid when they are not producing power, and sell electricity back to the grid at retail price when they are producing power.